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Pednelissos

Pednelissos is located approximately 75 km northeast of Antalya. The city occupies the western slopes of one of the lower, southernmost mountains of the Taurus. The central one of its three peaks, known as Bodrumkaya, rises to a height of more than 900 m above sea level and houses the main part of the ancient settlement. The present village of Kozan is situated to the north of the antique city and further down the slopes. The city, and even more so the fortifications at the top of the mountain, offer a very good view over the Pamphylian coastal plain. At present, the highest peak houses a watchtower of the foresters. Although geographically it can be discussed whether Pednelissos belonged to Pisidia, it was always considered part of it in Antiquity. Till today, the name of the city has not been confirmed by epigraphical evidence, but the identification of the ruins with the ancient city of Pednelissos is generally accepted.

The Pisidia Survey Project started an archaeological survey in 2000 and work is still continuing. Two seasons clearly showed that official and private buildings are well preserved. Long stretches of the Hellenistic city walls are still preserved, as well as four city gates. The top of the mountain was secured by yet another fortification wall, which was reached from the city by a well-preserved staircase. Part of the lower city seems to have been enveloped by a second ring of fortification wall. Its connection to the main city walls is very unclear at present, for larger stretches have completely disappeared.

Outside the city walls figure the remains of a Hellenistic Apollo sanctuary. It lies along the street which reaches Pednelissos from the west and it is enveloped by a large temenos and substructions walls. The main feature of this sanctuary is the large, well preserved rock-cut relief of Apollo, depicted within a naiskos.

The core of the Hellenistic public city centre consists of the agora and the adjacent market building. The agora is an artificially created square, supported by substantial substructions in the west and along its sloping northern and southern borders. The market building is situated to the west of the agora, masking its western substruction wall. Originally, the building had an L-shaped layout and consisted of a row of eight rooms along the western side of the square and two or possibly three along its northern border. At some point, the rooms along the northern side of the agora were completely altered, reducing the market building to the row of eight rooms along the west side of the agora. The north-western corner of the building is still standing three floors high, its top floor at the level of the agora, to which it opened as a Doric colonnade.

The north-eastern corner of the agora is currently taken up by an early Christian basilica. Most probably, it rises at the spot of the bouleuterion of the city. The complex of agora, bouleuterion and market building is more or less rectangular and is enveloped by streets running parallel to the mountain slope (N-S direction) and those mounting the slope. These streets intersect at right angels and fit in perfectly with the regular street pattern of the city.

The outstanding preservation of the square, its pavement and the adjacent market building, as well as the fact that an early Christian basilica was inserted, prove that this Hellenistic official centre remained in use throughout time and continued to fulfil its functions till the city was left. An additional indication for its importance in imperial time is the temple for the emperors, which was constructed in Severan times along the main street connecting the agora with the North Gate of the city, at very short distance from the agora.

Other public monuments from the imperial times, however, are situated to the west of the Hellenistic city centre, further down the slope. The bath building and an adjacent monumental staircase, as well as the remains of a large podium temple, seem to indicate that a second core of public monuments developed further down the slope, in imperial times.

To the north and the south of the monumental city centre lie the remains of the domestic quarters, which never spread beyond the city walls in the north and the south. Larger stretches of the western curtain have been completely destroyed and incorporated into dwellings. The remains often allow a reconstruction of the individual house plans.

Six churches, spread throughout the ancient city, reveal that the city continued thriving in early-Christian times.

The necropoleis of the city, finally, spread to the north and the west of the ancient city and offer a wide diversity of tomb types. Hellenistic ostothekai as well as sarkophagae and monumental temple tombs from the roman period are preserved and flank the road to the north and west of the city.